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2001 Anthrax Attacks Overview & The Central Players

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2001 Anthrax Attacks Overview


The '''2001 anthrax attacks''' in the United States occurred over the course of several weeks beginning on September 18, 2001 (after the September 11, 2001 attacks). Letters containing anthrax bacteria were mailed to five news media offices and two US Senators, killing five people. The crime remains unsolved.

The first set of anthrax letters had a Trenton, New Jersey postmark dated September 18, 2001, exactly one week after the September 11, 2001 attacks. Five letters are believed to have been mailed at this time, to ABC News, CBS News, NBC News, and the ''New York Post'', all in New York City; and to American Media, Inc. (AMI) in Boca Raton, Florida, which publishes the ''National Enquirer''. AMI also publishes a tabloid called ''Sun'' where Robert Stevens, the first person who died from the mailings, worked. Only the ''New York Post'' and NBC News letters were actually found; the existence of the other three letters is inferred from the pattern of infection.

The second and final pair of anthrax letters, bearing the same Trenton postmark, were dated October 9, three weeks after the first mailing. At the time of the second mailing, Robert Stevens had just died of inhalation anthrax, but the source of the anthrax had yet to be discovered. The letters were addressed to two Democratic Senators, Tom Daschle of South Dakota, and Patrick Leahy of Vermont.

More potent than the first anthrax letters, the material in the Senate letters was a highly refined dry powder consisting of approximately one gram of nearly pure spores. Some reports described the material in the Senate letters as "weaponized" or "weapons grade" anthrax.

The Daschle letter was opened by an aide on October 15, and the government mail service was shut down. The unopened Leahy letter was discovered in an impounded mail bag on November 16. It turned out that the Leahy letter was directed to the State Department mail facility by mistake, due to a misread Zip code. A postal worker there contracted inhalation anthrax, but survived.

Twenty-two people developed anthrax infections, eleven of the life-threatening inhalation variety. Five died of inhalation anthrax. In addition to the death of Robert Stevens in Florida, two died from unknown sources, possibly cross-contamination of mail: Kathy Nguyen, a Vietnamese immigrant from New York City; and Ottilie Lundren, a 94-year old woman from Oxford, Connecticut, who was the final victim. The two remaining deaths were employees of the Brentwood mail facility in Washington, D.C., Thomas Morris Jr. and Joseph Curseen.

Thousands of people took a two-month course of the antibiotic Cipro in an effort to preempt anthrax infections.

Investigation

The Justice Department has named no suspects in the anthrax case. Although Attorney General John Ashcroft labeled Dr. Steven Hatfill a "person of interest" in a press conference, no charges have been brought against him. Hatfill, a virologist, has vehemently denied he had anything to do with the anthrax mailings, and has sued the government for violating his constitutional rights. He has also sued ''The New York Times'' and its columnist Nicholas D. Kristof, and seperately Donald Foster and others, for defamation.

The letters contained at least two grades of anthrax material, but all of the anthrax was the same strain. Known as the Ames strain, it was first researched at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Maryland. The Ames strain was then distributed to at least fifteen bio-research labs within the US and six overseas.

Radiocarbon dating conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in June 2002 established that the anthrax was cultured no more than two years before the mailings.

In August 2002, investigators found traces of anthrax in a Princeton, New Jersey city street mailbox, which was likely used to mail some or all of the letters. The mailbox was located at 10 Nassau Street, which adjoins the Princeton University campus.

A reward for information totalling US$2.5 million is being offered by the FBI, U.S. Postal Service, and ADVO, Inc.

The return address


The letters addressed to Senator Daschle and Leahy have the return address:
:4th Grade
:Greendale School
:Franklin Park NJ 08852

The address is fictitious. Franklin Park, New Jersey exists, but the Zip code 08852 is for nearby Monmouth Junction, New Jersey. There is no Greendale School in New Jersey.


Barbara Hatch Rosenberg

Dr. Rosenberg has been a major figure in the anthrax investigation. A few months after the anthrax attack, Rosenberg started a campaign to get the FBI to investigate her suspect, Dr. Steven Hatfill. She gave talks and interviews suggesting the government knew who was responsible for the anthrax attacks, but did not want to charge the individual with the crime. She believed the person responsible was a contractor for the CIA and an expert in bio-warfare. She created a profile of the anthrax attacker that fit her suspect Dr. Hatfill. Rosenberg spoke before a committee of Senate staffers suggesting Hatfill was responsible, but did not explicitly provide his name. The highly publicized FBI scrutiny of Dr. Hatfill began shortly thereafter.

Don Foster

Donald Foster is the author of the article, "The Message in the Anthrax" (''Vanity Fair'', October 2003). Unlike other amateur investigators, Foster was a insider in the case and has helped the FBI in the past as a forensic linguistic analyst. Foster believes a series of bio-terror hoaxes trails his prime suspect, Dr. Steven Hatfill.

According to Hatfill's defamation lawsuit against Foster, Foster had previously argued based on the writing and language of the letters that the perpetrator could be a foreigner who spoke Arabic or Urdu. The lawsuit cited a October 23, 2001 appearence by Foster on ABC’s Good Morning America; an article that quoted him in the November 5, 2001 issue of ''TIME''; and a December 26, 2001 ''The Times'' article that quoted him.

Ed Lake

Ed Lake started the web site http://www.anthraxinvestigation.com, which contains most, if not all, of the news articles published concerning the incident. Lake thinks Dr. Steven Hatfill is innocent. His suspect lives near Trenton, New Jersey. Lake believes this person mailed the anthrax letters, but had an accomplice who stole the anthrax from a laboratory. He calls his theory the "refiner-mailer theory." Lake has self-published a book, ''Analyzing The Anthrax Attacks'', detailing his ideas in the anthrax case.

Richard M. Smith

Richard M. Smith is a computer expert who publishes on his web site, http://www.computerbytesman.com, which includes a number of articles about the anthrax case. Smith suggested that if the perpetrator looked up information such as addresses on the Internet, web server logs may contain valuable evidence.

Gary Matsumoto

Gary Matsumoto is a journalist and the author of the article, "Anthrax Powder - State of the Art?" (''Science'', November 28, 2003). In his article, Matsumoto discusses the advanced properties of the anthrax found in the Senate letters. Matsumoto concludes this weaponized form of anthrax came from a bio-weapons lab. He suggests a hidden CIA anthrax program may have been the source of the anthrax.

Ross E. Getman

Ross E. Getman, a Boston attorney, has a web site http://www.anthraxandalqaeda.com, "Al Qaeda, Anthrax and Ayman Zawahiri." Getman believes the anthrax attack was exactly what the notes in the letters suggest, namely a follow-up to the September 11, 2001 attacks by individuals connected to Al Qaeda.

Robert Pate

Robert Pate is the author of the article, "The Anthrax Mystery: Solved." at http://www.anthraxattacks.net. Pate believes Israel's intelligence service was responsible for the anthrax attack and set-up Dr. Hatfill with a series of anthrax hoaxes that occurred starting in 1997. Pate suggests Israel's motive in the anthrax attack was to get the United States to invade Iraq.

Aftermath

Dozens of buildings were contaminated with anthrax as a result of the mailings. American Media, Inc. moved to a different building. The decontamination of the Brentwood postal facility took 26 months and cost US$130 million. The Hamilton, NJ postal facility remained closed until March 2005; its cleanup cost US$65 million. The Environmental Protection Agency spent US$27 million to clean up government buildings in Washington, D.C.

The principle means of decontamination is fumigation with chlorine dioxide gas.

Political effects


The anthrax attacks, as well as the September 11, 2001 attacks, have spurred significant increases in U.S. government funding for biological warfare research and preparedness. For example, biowarfare-related funding at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) increased by US$1.5 billion in 2003. In 2004, Congress passed the Project Bioshield Act, which provides US$5.6 billion over ten years for the purchase of new vaccines and drugs. ("Taking biodefense too far", ''Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists'', November/December 2004 [http://www.thebulletin.org/print.php?art_ofn=nd04wright]).

Many states across the U.S. passed laws making hoaxes more serious crimes than they were previous to the attacks.

Health


Two years after the attack, several anthrax victims reported lingering health problems including fatigue, shortness of breath, and memory loss. The cause of the reported symptoms is unknown. ("Anthrax survivors find life a struggle", ''The Baltimore Sun'', September 18, 2003 [http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/bioter/anthraxsurvivors.html]).



The attacks




September 17 2001 or September 18: '''Attack #1''' - Five anthrax letters are mailed from Princeton, New Jersey, targetting news media: ABC News, CBS News, NBC News, and the ''New York Post'', all in New York City; and American Media, Inc. in Boca Raton, Florida, which publishes the ''National Enquirer''.

September 22-October 1: Nine people contract anthrax, but are not diagnosed.

October 2: Robert Stevens, a photo editor at the American Media Inc. tabloid ''Sun'' in Boca Raton, Florida, is admitted to the John F. Kennedy Hospital emergency room in Atlantis, Florida presenting disorientation, a high fever, vomiting, and inability to speak.

October 4: Robert Stevens is publicly confirmed to have inhalation anthrax. United States Department of Health and Human Services Secretary Tommy Thompson downplays terrorism as a possible cause, suggesting Stevens may have contracted anthrax by drinking water from a stream.

October 5: Robert Stevens, 63, dies, the first known death from inhalation anthrax in the U.S. since 1976.

October 7: Anthrax is found on Robert Steven's computer keyboard. The American Media building is closed and workers are tested for exposure.

October 6-October 9: '''Attack #2''' - Some time within this range, two more anthrax letters are mailed, targetting Senators Daschle and Leahy. (Monday, October 8, was Columbus Day, hence no mail pickup).

October 12: The (already opened) anthrax letter to NBC News is found, the first direct evidence of bioterrorism as the cause of the anthrax outbreak.

October 15: The letter to Senator Daschle is opened. It is quickly confirmed to be anthrax.

October 17: 31 Capitol workers (five Capitol police officers, three Russ Feingold staffers, 23 Tom Daschle staffers), test positive for the presence of anthrax (presumably via nasal swabs, etc.). Feingold's office is behind Daschle's in the Hart Senate Building. Anthrax spores are found in a Senate mailroom located in an office building near the Capitol. There are rumors that anthrax was found in the ventilation system of the Capitol building itself. The House of Representatives announces it will adjourn in response to the threat.

October 19: The unopened ''New York Post'' anthrax letter is found.

October 22: Federal officials announce that two D.C. area United States Postal Service workers have died from what appears to be pulmonary anthrax contracted from handling mail.

October 23: It is confirmed that the two postal handlers died of pulmonary anthrax. The men are Joseph P. Curseen, 47, and Thomas L. Morris Jr., 55.

October 25: David Hose, who works at the State Department mail facility, is hospitalized with inhalation anthrax. The source is the Leahy letter, which was routed to the State Department in error.

October 29: Kathy Nguyen, a New York City hospital worker, is hospitalized with inhalation anthrax. The source of the anthrax is unknown.

October 31: Kathy Nguyen, 61, dies.

November 16: The Leahy anthrax letter is found in the impounded Senate mail.

November 20: Ottilie Lundgren, of Oxford, Connecticut, is diagnosed with inhalation anthrax. The source was most likely contaminated mail, although no anthrax was detected in her home.

November 21: Ottilie Lundgren, 94, dies, the fifth and final person to die as a result of the mailings.

December 5: The Leahy letter is opened at the American bio-facility USAMRIID, Fort Detrick, Maryland.

December 16: DNA testing of the anthrax matches the Ames strain at USAMRIID.


Related events


August 11, 2002: Dr. Steven Hatfill holds an outdoor press conference in Alexandria, Virginia and declares his innocence and noninvolvement in the anthrax attacks.
December 14, 2002: The U.S. Postal Service begins to decontaminate the Brentwood mail facility 14 months after it was closed.

May 11, 2003: Ponds on the north side of Catoctin Mountain, near Gambrill Park Road and Tower Road in Frederick, Maryland, are under investigation by the FBI, in connection with the 2001 anthrax attacks. Divers reportedly retrieved a "clear box" with holes that could accommodate protective biological safety gloves, as well as vials wrapped in plastic from a pond in the Frederick Municipal Forest. A new theory has been developed suggesting how a criminal could have packed anthrax spores into envelopes without harming himself.
to drain the Frederick, Maryland pond.
June 28, 2003: The FBI finishes its investigation of the pond in Frederick, Maryland. Evidence found in the pond includes a bicycle, some logs, a street sign, coins, fishing lures, and a handgun. The FBI takes soil samples from the bottom of the pond for testing. No anthrax is found.

October 21, 2003: It is announced that decontamination of the Hamilton, NJ post office should begin this week.

December 22, 2003: The Brentwood post office reopens, 26 months after the anthrax attacks.
March 14, 2005: The Hamilton, NJ post office reopens, 41 months after the anthrax attacks.


The notes

The first anthrax note

The ''New York Post'' and NBC News letters contained the following note:

:09-11-01
:THIS IS NEXT
:TAKE PENACILIN NOW
:DEATH TO AMERICA
:DEATH TO ISRAEL
:ALLAH IS GREAT

The second anthrax note

The second note that was addressed to Senators Daschle and Leahy read:
:09-11-01
:YOU CAN NOT STOP US.
:WE HAVE THIS ANTHRAX.
:YOU DIE NOW.
:ARE YOU AFRAID?
:DEATH TO AMERICA.
:DEATH TO ISRAEL.
:ALLAH IS GREAT.

The notes were apparently photocopied and then trimmed.

See also



Leonard A. Cole, ''The Anthrax Letters, A Medical Detective Story'' (Joseph Henry Press, 2003) ISBN 030908881X
Robert Graysmith, ''AMERITHRAX: The Hunt for the Anthrax Killer'' (Berkley Books,2003) ISBN 0425191907
Marilyn W. Thompson, ''The Killer Strain, Anthrax and a Government Exposed'' (HarperCollins,2003) ISBN 006052278X
External links


Analysis and theories
[http://www.anthraxinvestigation.com/index.html The Anthrax Attacks by Ed Lake]
[http://www.anthraxinvestigation.com/return.html The Return Address Puzzle]
[http://www.anthraxinvestigation.com/index.html#letters The Letters]
[http://www.computerbytesman.com/anthrax/index.htm Articles by Richard M. Smith]
[http://www.computerbytesman.com/anthrax/princeton.htm The Princeton crime scene?]
[http://www.computerbytesman.com/anthrax/retaddr.htm Deconstructing the Return Addresses of the Leahy and Daschle Anthrax Letters]
[http://www.fas.org/bwc/news/anthraxreport.htm Analysis of the Anthrax Attacks by Barbara Hatch Rosenberg]
"The Message in the Anthrax" by Donald Foster (''Vanity Fair'', October 2003) [http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/bioter/messageanthrax.html]
"Anthrax Powder - State of the Art?" by Gary Matsumoto (''Science'', November 28, 2003) [http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1030042/posts]
[http://www.monitor.net/monitor/0208a/anthrax.html The Anthrax Letters, Five Deaths, Five Grams, Five Clues by Paul de Armond]
[http://anthrax2001.blogspot.com "Anthrax2001" weblog]
[http://www.anthraxattacks.net/ The Anthrax Mystery: Solved by Robert Pate]
[http://www.anthraxandalqaeda.com Al Qaeda, Anthrax and Ayman Zawahiri by Ross E. Getman]

Resources
[http://www.anthraxinvestigation.com/page-one.html#references The Anthrax Investigation (Ed Lake)]
[http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/bioter/detect/antdetect_intro.html UCLA Department of Epidemiology]
[http://www.fbi.gov/anthrax/amerithraxlinks.htm FBI's official 'Amerithrax' page]
[http://www.fbi.gov/pressrel/pressrel01/102301.htm Photos of Anthrax Letters to NBC, Senator Daschle, and NY Post]
[http://www.fbi.gov/anthrax/amerithrax.htm Linguistic/Behavorial Analysis of Anthrax Letters]
[http://www.anthraxinvestigation.com/canadiananthraxstudysep01.pdf Risk Assessment of Anthrax Threat Letters] - Canadian study dated September 2001 (PDF)
[http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/hatfill/hatfillash82603cmp.pdf Hatfill v. Ashcroft] - lawsuit filing (PDF)
[http://www.anthraxinvestigation.com/Hatfill-v-Foster.html Hatfill v. Foster]
[http://www.anthraxinvestigation.com/Hatfill-v-Kristof.html Hatfill v. New York Times]



This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the 2001_anthrax_attacks Wikipedia article 2001_anthrax_attacks.


CENTRAL PLAYERS

Dr. Ayaad Assaad, who holds graduate degrees from Iowa State University and has lived in the United States since the mid-1970s, claims he was discriminated against when he worked at the Army's Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases at Fort Detrick. He now works as a toxicologist for the Environmental Protection Agency.

David Franz, the vice president of chemical and biological defenses at the Southern Research Institute and a former commander at the Army's germ defense lab at Ft. Detrick, Maryland

Colonel David Franz was in charge at Fort Detrick for eleven years -- he's had hands-on experience with biological agents and has his own ideas about the kind of person the FBI should be looking for.

COLONEL DAVID FRANZ (former Detrick Medical Research Program, 1987-98):

WILLIAM CAPERS PATRICK III:
BIOLOGICAL WARFARE CONSULTANT:

William Capers Patrick III was part of the original Fort Detrick anthrax development program, which "officially" ended in 1972 when President Nixon signed, along with the Soviet Union and United Kingdom, the Biological Weapons Convention. Nixon had actually ordered the Pentagon to stop producing biological weapons in 1969. It now seems likely that the U.S. military and intelligence community failed to follow Nixon's orders and, in fact, have consistently violated a lawful treaty signed by the United States."


the New York Times claimed William Capers Patrick III, the dean of American biowarfare scientists, once authored a secret paper on the effects of sending anthrax through the mail. (See Wayne Madsen in Counterpunch, Apr. 8, 2002, www.counterpunch.org). Patrick denied this, but the BBC repeated the story and said a CIA contractor used his paper in designing tests to determine the viability of mailed anthrax.

Stuart Jacobsen of Texas.

The other faction thinks that the powder mailed to the Senate (widely reported to be more refined than the one mailed to the TV networks in New York) was a diabolical advance in biological weapons technology. This diverse group includes scientists who specialize in biodefense for the Pentagon and other federal agencies, private-sector scientists who make small particles for use in pharmaceutical powders, and an electronics researcher, chemist Stuart Jacobsen of Texas.


‘Germs: Biological Weapons and America’s Secret War’
CHAPTER 2: WARRIOR

Decades before the Rajneeshees started their experimentation, the United States and the Soviet Union were already veterans at turning germs into weapons, having produced arsenals to cripple and kill millions of people. There had been challenges. On the American side, a main problem solver was Bill Patrick. For two decades, he had done biological research at Fort Detrick, Maryland, the U.S. Army’s sprawling base for the design of germ weapons. He had been awarded five patents and risen to become chief of what was known as the Product Development Division. In 1969, when President Nixon suddenly ended the program, he had stayed on at Detrick doing defensive work.

So when the Federal Bureau of Investigation needed a top expert to study the attack of the Rajneeshees and examine the cult’s compound, it turned to Patrick. Flown out from Detrick to Oregon in late 1985, he sensed that the cult was to blame for the outbreak. For one thing, he found a germ incubator — an unusual piece of equipment for a health clinic. Patrick knew salmonella well. Scientists at Detrick had investigated the bug as a weapon, with at least one worker falling ill.

As the evidence grew, Patrick could see that the people in The Dalles had been victims of crude bioterrorism. The Rajneesh crowd had chosen one of the mildest pathogens and had ignored the airborne delivery of biological agents — the traditional and most effective way of mobilizing microbes for war. Growing germs was easy; the process was like brewing beer. It was the subtleties of biological engineering — drying germs, encapsulating them in special coatings, making them hardy and stable enough for wide dissemination by aerosol sprayers, learning how to extend their shelf life — that turned pathogens into deadly weapons.

Beginning in the 1950s, Patrick and his men had devised little biological time bombs that would float invisibly in the air for hours, like dust, or sail far on the wind. The small size of the particles meant that once they encountered a person, they could penetrate deep into the lungs. The natural defenses of the human respiratory tract, ranging from hairs in the nose to cilia along the windpipe, easily block large particles. But small ones zip right by. Inside the lung, multiplying in moist tissues, a single invader could produce millions of offspring. Patrick and his coworkers had also learned how to concentrate the tiny bomblets, ensuring wide destruction. In time, they had managed to increase the potency of anthrax — a usually fatal disease of coughing, high fevers, hard breathing, chest pain, heavy perspiration, and a bluish discoloration of the skin caused by lack of oxygen — so that a single gallon held up to eight billion lethal doses, enough to kill every man, woman, and child on the planet. A bigger challenge was distributing the poison, most of which would dissipate in the wind. American scientists had spent decades investigating how to make lethal dissemination as efficient as possible.

Such progress had a price, of course. Painstakingly, the germ-development program at Fort Detrick had tested prospective germ weapons on nearly a thousand American soldiers, in sealed chambers and the wilds of the Utah desert. Reaching beyond the military, it had exposed prisoners at the Ohio State Penitentiary, where volunteers were carefully monitored. Clandestinely, it also sprayed American cities with mild germs to investigate the likely impact of deadly pathogens.

The price of progress also included a number of accidents in which the experimenters, including Patrick, were inadvertently turned into human guinea pigs. Women were largely banned from the work after two gave birth to children with severe birth defects. Both babies died. In all, the scientists made enough mistakes to become victims of their own pathogens 456 times. All but three survived. Two men fell to anthrax. One was consumed by Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, an exotic ailment that eats away at the body’s internal organs and causes profuse bleeding from the nose, mouth, anus, and other mucous membranes. Patrick himself came down with Q fever. This relatively mild disease was meant to cripple foes with chills, coughing, headaches, hallucinations, and fevers of up to 104 degrees.

Patrick had no regrets. After decades of living with burdensome secrecy rules, he spoke freely in his early seventies about the experiments, his own illness, and the deaths. It had all been done in the line of duty, driven by fear of the Communists, he said. What Moscow’s germ program was in fact doing turned out to be far worse than anything Patrick and his colleagues ever imagined.

In speaking out, Patrick wanted to rebut critics who argued that germ weapons were impractical and too dangerous to use. He was eager to show not only the seriousness of the foreign menace but also how far the black art had come in American hands. In addition, he wanted to warn that the Rajneeshees’ attack was but a foretaste of things to come. Terrorism was on the rise, and increasingly its targets were American. Late in life, he worked hard with many federal agencies to encourage better defenses, worried about the threat not only to Americans but also his own family.

Nothing in his past had suggested that Bill Patrick would become a germ warrior. Like a surprising number of his peers who developed weapons for biological warfare, he had begun his career eager to save lives and aid the revolution that was turning medicine from an art into a science. To all appearances, he was just a regular guy.

William Capers Patrick III was born July 24, 1926, the only child of a southern couple whose families were of Scotch-Irish descent. His middle name was taken from a relation who was a Methodist bishop. His hometown of Furman, South Carolina, was a tiny speck of civilization that lay in the Low Country near the Savannah River. While provincial, with a population of about one hundred people, the town and the surrounding area were a boy’s dream.

Patrick was serving in the army during the Second World War when he first encountered penicillin, which was just coming into wide use as a way to battle microbes in the human body. Fascinated by the development, he went back to school ready to cure diseases and aid the new field of antibiotic medicine.

He received a bachelor’s degree in biology from the University of South Carolina in 1948 and, a year later, a master’s degree in microbiology from the University of Tennessee in Knoxville. Upon graduation in 1949, he began working for a company in Indiana that made the new wonder drugs of antibiotic medicine. A research microbiologist, he helped pioneer ways to mass-produce penicillin and bacitracin, another antibiotic. His work centered on learning how best to grow microbes and extract their antibiotics, which are natural compounds that germs use to fight one another in microscopic wars. Most fundamentally, he helped find ways to keep the bacterial colonies alive and reproducing, a process that required the constant renewal of food supplies and the removal of metabolic wastes.
In his antibiotic work, Patrick was aiding one of the greatest and most inconspicuous of human revolutions. People in antiquity had lived an average of twenty or thirty years. By Patrick’s day, the figure had risen to more than sixty years. By the century’s end, in industrial nations, it stood at roughly eighty years. The lengthening of the human life span was due largely to the decline of infectious disease. One by one, history’s great killers and cripplers — plague, cholera, tuberculosis, smallpox, typhus, leprosy, diphtheria, polio, influenza, dysentery, pneumonia, whooping cough, and a dozen other scourges — had been vanquished or tamed.

One day, Patrick got a call from a former teacher in Tennessee who had gone to work for the military on secret projects. His work, the mentor confided, centered on how highly pathogenic organisms might be deployed to help deter and win wars. He could give no details; such talk was forbidden. But the research was fascinating. He urged the biologist to sign up, appealing to his love of country and his sense of scientific adventure.

The young scientist was eager for challenges and flattered by the attentions of a former teacher. In 1951 after a background check that took more than half a year, Patrick won a top-secret clearance and permission to work at what was then called Camp Detrick, the heart of the federal government’s research on germ warfare.?

Excerpted from “Germs” by Judith Miller, Stephen Engelberg, and William Broad. Copyright 2001, 2002 by Judith Miller, Stephen Engelberg, and William Broad. Published by Touchstone Books. All rights reserved



DR MARY BETH DOWNS (St. Matthew's University School of Medicine, former Fort Detrick Employee



"Late-Night Research

More troubling to Langford than the missing specimens was what investigators called "surreptitious" work being done in the pathology lab late at night and on weekends.

Dr. Mary Beth Downs told investigators that she had come to work several times in January and February of 1992 to find that someone had been in the lab at odd hours, clumsily using the sophisticated electron microscope to conduct some kind of off-the-books research.

After one weekend in February, Downs discovered that someone had been in the lab using the microscope to take photos of slides, and apparently had forgotten to reset a feature on the microscope that imprints each photo with a label. After taking a few pictures of her own slides that morning, Downs was surprised to see "Antrax 005" emblazoned on her negatives.

Downs also noted that an automatic counter on the camera, like an odometer on a car, had been rolled back to hide the fact that pictures had been taken over the weekend. She wrote of her findings in a memo to Langford, noting that whoever was using the microscope was "either in a big hurry or didn't know what they were doing."

Eric Oldenberg former Detrick laboratory technician told The Courant that while at Detrick, he only handled the Ames strain, the same strain sent to the Senate and the media. The Hartford Courant also revealed that other specimens missing included Ebola, hanta virus, simian AIDS, and two labeled "unknown," a cover term for classified research on secret biological agents.

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Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax anthrax city
Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthraxAnthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax Anthrax anthrax 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ripley zack Don Foster forensic analysis handwriting anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax investigation spores lost stolen ames ames anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city atzlan antrax 005 ripley zack Don Foster forensic analysis handwriting anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax investigation spores lost stolen ames ames anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city atzlan antrax 005 ripley zack Don Foster forensic analysis handwriting anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax investigation spores lost stolen ames ames anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city 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Detrick USAMRIID Camel club Assaad antrax antrax 005 ripley zack Don Foster forensic analysis handwriting anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax investigation spores lost stolen ames ames anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city lawyer attorney tom connolly conoly Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax 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Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax
Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax B’nai B’rith Wassington dc 1997 person of interest person of interest person of interest victor victor victor goetz goetz biologist microbiologist chemist biochemist vaccine bacteris anthracis b.anthracis person of interest person of interest person of interest victor victor victor goetz goetz biologist microbiologist chemist biochemist vaccine bacteris anthracis b.anthracis person of interest person of interest person of interest victor victor victor goetz goetz biologist microbiologist chemist biochemist vaccine bacteris anthracis b.anthracis person of interest person of interest person of interest victor victor victor goetz goetz biologist microbiologist chemist biochemist vaccine bacteris anthracis b.anthracis dpore spores
Berry Berry Berry Berry md MD
Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax freerepublic the great satan anthrax letters anthrax anthrax anthrax investigation anthrax letters anthrax letters anthrax anthrax anthrax investigation anthrax letters Ft Detrick USAMRIID Camel club Assaad antrax antrax 005 ripley zack Don Foster forensic analysis handwriting anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax investigation spores lost stolen ames ames anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city anthrax city

Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax goetz anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax
Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax victor investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax investigation fbi anthrax anthrax anthrax Steven hatfill anthrax